Agroforestri Dan Pengelolaan Kebun Kakao Berkelanjutan

Abdul Rahim Saleh

Sari

Kakao, salah satu tanaman tahunan penting di dunia, hampir secara eksklusif dieksplorasi untuk pembuatan coklat. Habitat asli tanaman kakao yaitu tumbuh di bawah naungan tegakan hutan, karena tanaman kakao merupakan spesies yang toleran naungan, di mana naungan yang tepat mempengaruhi laju fotosintesis relatif tinggi, yang akhirnya mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan hasil biji. Cahaya yang tinggi memicu serangan hama dan penyakit, sehingga akan menurunkan hasil biji. Produksi kakao yang tinggi pada sistem monokulttur membutuhkan input tinggi dalam hal proteksi dan nutrisi tanaman.  Manajemen agroforesri kakao yang tepat, mempu menciptakan iklim mikro yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan tanaman kakao berupa mengurangi intensitas penyinaran yang diterima kanopi daun, menurunkan suhu yang mempu menekan laju evapotranspirasi. Pohon naungan dalam sistem agroforestri menjadi inang bagi serangga hama maupun predator serta serngga penyerbuk. Selain itu, pohon naungan menyumbangkan seresah bahan organik tanah. Usaha budidaya kakao dengan sistem agroforestri dapat menjadi alternatif dalam mengolah lahan marjinal yang kurang subur menjadi lahan yang produktif dan berkelanjutan.

 

Kata Kunci

Kakao, agroforestri, naungan dan berkelanjutan

Teks Lengkap:

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Referensi

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